1st Degree Lesson

Lesson 1

 DIG Rules and Regulations


  1. All rules are binding to all members, whether they are students or coven member. No one is above the rules.
  2. The rules can only be changed by the Main branch of the Coven. Suggestions can be submitted, which will be discussed by the Elders. When a decision is made all parties shall be advised on the out come.
  3. All members who wish to stay in the closet shall be respected. Names, addresses and other personal information shall not be released without the permission of all members.
  4. No one shall out a Witch, class member or a Coven. These are part of our secrets that shall not be revealed without repercussion. Society has not caught up and this can bring harm to people’s lives.
  5. Within the Coven there shall be no secrets as to the inner workings and classes. Organization and training shall be agreed upon in totality.
  6. Members may leave the Coven and classes at any time and are free to leave without fear of reprisals. Their name shall stay in tact. They shall also be asked to be discreet about the inner workings of the Coven. Out of respect their decision to leave should be discussed with the Elders.
  7. Degree classes are not required but asked by all Coven members, but they are not expected to walk the Priestess or Priest path. All members must make this decision for themselves for we are each on our own path.
  8. Regularly missed attendance will be brought before the Coven. If a member needs to take time off then it should be discussed with the High Priest and/or High Priestess and a time limit shall be put into place. If said person cannot commit then they shall be placed on an inactive list or asked to leave. Later if said person wants to come back they can ask the Coven and/or Elders if they will be allowed back. Said person may be asked to start their current degree over from day one. This shall be up to the Elders and teachers.
  9. Time requirement for coven entry are as follows: Seeker minimum of 3 months, Pledge minimum of 6 months.
  10. When attending classes, members shall call the teacher or assistant teacher, if they cannot come to class or will be late. Always call in plenty of time so revisions can be made. Respect should always be shown. If this simple respect cannot be shown then it is up to the teachers and Elders on type of reprimand.
  11. During class all cell phones should be turned off or put on vibrate out of respect for the teacher and the participating students.
  12. Persons under 18 who want to learn the craft may come to classes and/or participate in circles. They must have a parent with them. Any teen whose parent does not want to attend and it is deemed they have the mental capacity and written permission from the parent then they may attend, if the Elders are all in agreement.
  13. While attending classes, four no call, no shows will automatically send member back to day one of degree unless brought up before the Coven and it is overturned.
  14. Members are awarded degrees when teachers and/or Elders agree the time is at hand. This can be partitioned if anyone feels that they are being shunned. It should be first taken to the Coven Elders, and then if not satisfactory, be taken to the Main branch of the DIG.
  15. Persons wishing to be in the Coven must approach of their own free will. We do not recruit. It shall then be discussed by the Coven and should be agreed upon in totality. If there is any issue, it shall be brought to the Main branch of the DIG. All rules, regulations and bi-laws shall be discussed to said person till all questions have been answered for them.
  16. While in the Coven, no call, no shows within 3 months will put said member on the inactive list. Member must partition the Coven to come back.
  17. If formal request is made and then later ex-member wishes to rejoin, they must go thru the process from the beginning.
  18. Members may be members of other groups and/or associate with other groups with the understanding they still follow the rules and regulations of the DIG and let teachers and/or Elders know. If there is a conflict they should bring the issue to their High Priestess and/or High Priest. If need be, they shall be made to make a decision between the two. No Secrets of the DIG shall be discussed with other Covens or groups. If this happens said person may be asked to leave the DIG and/or black balled if necessary.
  19. The Coven is for spiritual, family and friendship purposes. Deliberate and/or constant harassment of anyone can be brought up for reprimand before the Elders. If members cannot get along then the aggressor may be banished or reprimanded. This also goes for sexual harassment.
  20. Any member can bring issues to the Coven. If needed a Talking Stick shall be used. Only the person holding the stick may talk. Others must wait till it is their turn. The Elders will make a decision on the issue and it shall be followed.
  21. Bashing or ill repute about the Coven or members will lead to reprimand or banishment.
  22. Members shall not attack each other magickally, mentally or physically. If this happens then it should be brought up before the Elders.
  23. If rules and regulations are broken it shall be presented to the Elders and/or the main branch of the DIG. The main branch of the DIG has final word and this shall be up held.
  24. No person shall come to Circle under the influence of drug or alcohol. No smoking is allowed within Circle. Wine or mead may be served during Cakes and Ale.
  25. Always ask if anyone cannot partake and/or have a choice for those who are not able or willing, such as physical issues, mental issues or under age.
  26. All cell phones and electronics should be turned off during Circles and Classes.
  27. Members are expected to display honor, integrity and manners at all times. Trust should not be in question. Any question of these should be brought to the Elders and decided what type of reprimand is in order.


BI-laws for Deithean Tradition

1. Leave egos behind

This is not the place to have ego trips. We come together to practice spirituality and magicks. There is a hierarchy for decision purposes, but all are equal.

2. Honor and respect everyone's gifts

We each walk our own path and have different gifts. No one gift is better than another.

3. Know when to talk and when to listen

The old saying that you learn more by listening then by talking is said for a reason. Learn to listen and hear what you are missing.

4. Value diversity and individuality

In order to become balanced we each have different strengths and weaknesses. It is in being different that we gain knowledge and wisdom.

5. No prejudices will be tolerated

Bashing and name calling is not giving respect. We choose to come into this life for a reason and just because someone is not like you, is never a reason to harm someone.

6. Nurture one another

We are here to help and guide each other. Lessons can be learned from the smallest thought or phrase, so we become a chosen family because of how we support each other.

7. Encourage interaction within Pagan community

When we only see things from our perspective then we become like stagnant water. Go out and visit others. Keep an open mind at all times. You can be Pagan and still learn from a Christian church. It does not matter where the message comes from as long as you learn from the message.

8. Coven & class knowings, are not to be outed unless permission given

What is shared between members is not to be shared with anyone unless express permission is given. It is no one else’s business what we share together. What is said and done stays among the present participants.

9. If you don't know it don't teach it

Pretending that you know something you don’t is bad enough, but when you try to teach something that you don’t know then it will come back and bite you. This is not showing respect to your students and when they learn that you lied to them, they will loose any trust that was given.




Deithean Rede

As above

(Raise arms to air)

So below

(Lower arms to ground)

Powers joined

(Hands joined)

We make it so

(Raise hands joined)



 The 13 Steps of the Deithean Tradition

Sections one:

Seeker – one who is looking for knowledge and is not quite sure where they want to go.

Pledge – one who wants to learn the Deithean tradition, and starts taking some responsibilities


Sections two:

Teacher – one who helps seekers and pledges with charts and learning the basics

Madrigal – one who keeps records on poems, chants, songs, stories, etc…

Keeper – one who makes sure we have clean areas, permits, communication, etc.

Sentinel – one who watches over outer perimeters of circle and helps with chaos.

Gate Keeper – one who is a representative of a Gateway and protects Gateway passageway


Sections three:

Maiden/Squire – one who is the Mother/Father helper and may also may be in line for Mother/Father step.

Mother/Father – one who is the keeper of the coven, counselor, protector, and/or whatever is needed.

Crone/Sage – one who has handed down the Mother/Father step and is the head of and adviser of the coven.

The Pentagram and the Pentacle

A Pentagram is the five-point star  

A Pentacle is a Pentagram surrounded by a circle

The five points is attributed to the five elements of the ancients


(Upper right hand corner) Represents intelligence and the arts



(Lower right hand corner) Represents courage and daring



(Lower left hand corner) Represents emotions and intuition



(Upper left hand corner) Represents stability and physical endurance



(At the topmost point) Represents the All and the Divine


The Circle

(Around the pentagram) Represents the God and Goddess

It absorbs and mirrors all light, bringing to the wearer total intelligence, universal wisdom and protection.






*Original rules and regulations were decreed in August of 2005 by Nightress.
*Revised rules and regulations were decreed in April of 2010 by Lady Nightress.
*Revised rules and regulations were decreed in May of 2010 by Lady Nightress.
*Revised rules and regulations were decreed in September of 2016 by Lady Nightress.
*Revised rules and regulations were decreed in March of 2019 by Lady Nightress

Some Witchcraft Traditions


1. African Witchcraft

On the continent of Africa, witchcraft varies hugely from country to country. It is way too complex to be summarized simply as ‘African Witchcraft.’ There are healers, fortune-tellers, and practitioners of black magic. There are also witch finders whose job it is to seek out and imprison, torture, or kill anyone suspected of witchcraft. In some areas, the witch is revered as a healer and all-around good person. In other places, to have ‘witch’ whispered about you is a death sentence.

2. Alexandrian

Alexandrian witchcraft is a tradition that began in Britain in the late 1960's. Taking Gerald Gardner’s reinvention of witchcraft, Alex and Maxine Sanders created their own version. It changed and morphed throughout Alex Sander’s lifetime. Based on formal ritual and ceremonial magic, Sanders described it as 'somewhat eclectic.' Students were expected to study as required and undergo initiation ceremonies.

Stuart Farrar, a student of the Sanders, wrote a popular book, still in print today, called “What Witches Do”, based on the workings of the Alexandrian coven. Farrar refers to the type of witchcraft they practice as Wicca, and I particularly like this quote:

3. Ancestral Witch

Ancestral Witches are a branch of folk magic, which varies from country and continent. Ancestral witchcraft is focused on working with ancestors, both family and more generally. A practitioner of ancestral witchcraft performs rituals designed to connect them with the spirits of the dead. Wiccan witches, in general, only do this at Samhain

4. Angel Witch

An Angel witch is someone who works with the energy of angels. One person who works with angels is the author, Doreen Virtue.

There is another branch of angel magic, and it is a little more serious, focused, and less ‘fluffy.’ This is the type of work practiced by the writer, Damon Brand. He probably wouldn’t describe himself as a witch either. This energy work is based on working with the names of angels and their sigils (special symbols that represent them).

5. Animist Witch

Animism is the belief that there is living energy in all things. The term comes from the Latin ‘anima,’ meaning ‘breathe of life.’ An animist witch sees no distinction between humans, animals, plants, or any other physical object. Additionally, they also believe that words hold their own life energy.

The animist witch sees the Universe as a whole, connected, living entity. Continually changing and evolving. When they do magical work, they tune into the pulsating live force of the 'all.'

6. Art Witch

An art witch works through the medium of art. She may express her witchiness through her work, and/or use art to manifest her desired outcomes.

7. Arthurian Witch, Isles of the Blessed, Avalon

An Arthurian witch takes the mythology of Britain’s King Arthur and creates a whole way of being based upon it. However, the problem with this is that it is only a fantasy because there is no evidence that the events described in the story actually happened. The King Arthur myth is mostly based on Geoffrey of Monmouth’s imaginative retelling of history.

There is evidence, however, that the hills surrounding Bristol and Bath in the South West of England were once small isles that rose above the sea. This is where Glastonbury is located, and the area was known as ‘Avalon.’

8. Astarte

Astarte is an ancient Greek Goddess who was based on the Egyptian deity, Astoreth. Her origins are lost in the mists of time, but she was also worshiped by the Canaanites and Phoenicians. Astarte is the goddess of fertility and war. She is also seen as chief among goddesses. Her followers today, study her history, mythology, and call upon her to aid them in ritual.

9. Astrology Witch

Some astrologists also embrace witchcraft and base their practice and lifestyle on the alignment and position of the heavenly bodies. An eclectic witch might decide to incorporate a little astrological study to aid her energy work. An astrology witch, however, is someone who is all about astrology and knows their subject inside out.

10. Augury Witch

An augury witch is one who divines omens, signs, and symbols. They are not a fortune-teller exactly, yet they are able to interpret whether a proposed course of action is good or bad. They can aid anyone on a specific spiritual quest.

11. Axis Mundi Witch

The Axis Mundi is a fascinating concept with roots in almost all ancient civilizations. At its core is the idea that there is a central pillar (either man-made or natural) that joins earth to heaven. Each civilization had its own Axis Mundi, for example, Mount Fuji in Japan, Uluru in Australia, The World Tree or Yggdrasil in Norse mythology.

An Axis Mundi witch studies the concept and its variations, and embraces the tenet, “As above, so below,” believing that patterns and events are mirrored—from the construct of the Universe down to the very particles of our own bodies.

12. British Traditional Witchcraft

British Traditional Witchcraft has many branches, ranging from the wise woman, village midwifes of old, to ceremonial magicians. Generally speaking, British witchcraft is based on local traditions and variations. From Ireland, England, Scotland, Wales, and the Isle of Man, traditions vary wildly.

Traditional British witchcraft was not religious but called upon ‘the old ones’ (and variants thereof) to help with magical works. It’s as informal as it gets. A traditional witch might spend a long time preparing for a ritual spell, or she might simply utter a curse on the spot.

13. Celtic Witch

Also with roots in Britain is Celtic Witchcraft. Celtic witchcraft is built on the study and worship of ancient Celtic deities (mostly Welsh and Irish), mythology, earth magic, ceremony, and ritual. Celtic witchcraft seems to have struck a chord with witches the world over and there are many new ‘traditions’ springing up everywhere.

14. Ceremonial Witch

This term simply describes a witch who practices ‘high magick.’ They usually follow some specific tradition, such as Hermetic, Thelemic, and Enochian. Such a practice requires a lot of study and many accouterments for magical rituals. Rituals are carried out in a strict step-by-step fashion as prescribed by the particular tradition followed.

15. Chaos Magic/Witchcraft

A person who uses chaos magic borrows from all kinds of other traditions. The term ‘chaos magic’ began in the 1970's in the UK. The central idea behind it is belief: belief in the preferred outcome, and belief in the method of working toward it. The main rule is that there are no rules. It couldn't be further from ceremonial witchcraft as described above, yet it will use elements of it if the practitioner believes it might help.

A chaos witch works on the same principle; taking various deities, methods, and systems from other traditions, ramping up his or her belief in the certainty that it will work and having total faith in themselves and their ability to change and create their reality.

16. Chthonian Alexandrian Wicca

A variation of the Alexandrian tradition, Chthonian Alexandrian Wicca is based in Boston, Mass. It boasts an unbroken lineage back to the original 1970 coven. It also breaks with the British version by including a pantheon of ancient Greek gods and goddesses.

17. Crystal Witch

A crystal witch focuses their practice on the use of crystals. Using them to increase and concentrate energy for a wide range of applications, including healing, protection, and divination.

18. Dianic Witchcraft

Dianic witchcraft focuses on female deities. It is named after Diana, the Roman goddess of hunting, nature and the Moon. It’s likely that the worship of Diana was a cult back in ancient Rome. Dianic covens are usually restricted to female members. This branch of witchcraft celebrates all things female and many members report that their coven helped and supported them through difficulties. Dianic witches will work magick on those who oppress or abuse women, and happily work binding spells on them.

19. Divination Witch

A divination witch is one who specializes in divination, such as tarot cards, scrying, or other such means of discovering occult (hidden) information. Someone may set out on the witchcraft path and then find being wholly absorbed by the fascinating topic of divination.

20. Dowser

Dowsing is an ancient tradition, and there are two main ways to do it. One is by using a hazel twig or lightweight metal rods. The other is by using a pendulum. A dowsing witch is one who incorporates dowsing into her witchy work. Dowsing is used to locate ley lines (energy grids that criss-cross the planet), underground streams and natural reservoirs, lost items, and all kinds of other things.

21. Druid

The modern or neo-Druid witch has a deep respect for nature and base their whole life on the druidic way. Often members of environmental organizations, Druids identify with Celtic culture. Some Druids claim an unbroken lineage back to ancient times, but there is no evidence for that. Plus the ancient Druid rites and knowledge were never recorded so modern Druidry is an attempt at reconstruction. They do have lots of fun, I’ve heard.

22. Earth-Based Witchcraft; Gaia

This covers a wide-ranging variety from Druidry, neo-paganism, Hedgewitchery, and the like. Simply put, it is any kind of nature-centric witchcraft.

23. Eclectic Witch

I expect there are more witches of the eclectic type than any other. An eclectic refuses to be pinned down to one tradition. They embrace everything that appeals to them and define their own path.

24. Eco-Paganism

Eco-pagans are usually environmental activists. They work hard to raise public awareness of problems. They often incorporate rituals that bind or oppose those they see as ‘enemies of the planet’. Their faith and belief that nature is sacred underpins everything they do. Eco-paganism embraces witchcraft and other branches of paganism as long as they share their values.

25. Egyptian Witchcraft

Egyptian witchcraft follows a Wiccan-like path, but focuses on the ancient Egyptian deities. They incorporate most other Wiccan elements, such as moon phases, the Wheel of the Year and the solar festivals.

26. Elemental Witch

An elemental witch is one who bases their path on working with the five esoteric elements: fire, water, air, earth, and spirit. They may also incorporate working with the ‘elementals’; creatures such as: salamanders (fire), undines or nymphs (water), sylphs (air), and gnomes (earth). There are many more elementals, all of them restricted to their own realm.

27. European

Like witchcraft practiced on the continent of Africa, European witchcraft covers a huge range of different kinds of witchcraft. Each country, region, and locale will have its own particular characteristics and traditions. Again, it’s best to explore country by country.

28. Faery

Faery traditions are based on ancient folklore, usually found in, but not restricted to, the British Isles. In Ireland, the faery folk are called the Tuatha de Danaan. In Wales, the Twlwyth Teg, and in Scotland, there are a whole bunch of faery folk, such as, BuachailleenBrowniesGnomes, the GruagachHeather PixiesPixies and Seelie Courts, But you must watch out for the bad guys: "Ghillie DhuKelpiesNucklelavees, and Fachans.There is also a branch of Wicca called Faery Wicca.

29. Fellowship of Isis

The Fellowship of Isis began in Ireland in 1976. It is multi-faith and inclusive. It is based on the worship of the female goddess, Isis, the Divine Mother, ‘she of 10,000 names’. There are 26,000 members of FOL worldwide.

30. Floral Witch

As the name suggests, a floral witch works mainly with flowers, their properties, and essences. She may work magick or focus completely on healing.

31. Folk Witchcraft

More commonly known as ‘cunning folk’, this tradition is closely related to both British witchcraft and Faery. They are called by many names: white witch, pellar (Cornish), wise woman (or man). They work their trade among the population, their skills being advertised through word-of-mouth. There aren’t many left, but they are still around, if you can find them. These will be hereditary witches; their skills and knowledge passed down through the generations.

32. Gardnerian Tradition

Modern witchcraft owes its existence to Gerald Brosseau Gardner. Drawing on all the research he could muster, he created and crafted the religious movement, Wicca (although he did not give it that label). Some claim he received initiation into witchcraft from a coven based in the New Forest in the south of England.

The Gardnerian tradition is a highly structured form of witchcraft. It is coven-based and has a formal progression through degrees of initiation. Practices are kept secret, and many members keep their affiliation to their coven secret also.

There have been a number of offshoots, namely the covens and traditions started by Alex Sanders in the UK and Raymond Buckland in the US.

33. Green Witchcraft

A green witch builds her life around such things as gardening and herbalism. She may specialize in essential oils, flower crafts or nature study. She may also incorporate other natural skills like healing and divination. A green witch may also be known as a hedge witch, or a very hungover witch.

34. Healer

A healing witch may use one or more modalities. They include hands-on healing, Reiki, Quantum healing, spell work, visualization, or sigils. Herbalism might come under this classification but beware of any non-qualified person handing out healing ‘remedies.’ Herbs can be as powerful as any other drug.

35. Hearth Witch

A hearth witch’s practice is centered on the home. It’s similar to kitchen witchery. Hearth witches take as their representative, the goddess, Hestia (Greek), also known as Vesta (Roman). Hearth witches celebrate everything about domestic living: cooking, gardening, cleaning, bringing up children. It might seem a little mundane, but in fact, it isn’t. Anyone whose mother embraces hearth witchery is a lucky one indeed. Hearth witches might call on the help of Brownies and Hobs to aid them in their daily lives. One unhelpful house spirit is, of course, the Sock Monster.

36. Hedge Witch

A hedge witch is an individual; a solitary practitioner who follows her own path. Her tradition comes from the times when a hedge was the boundary where forest met pasture. It’s along this line the magical herbs of the hedge witch’s healing remedies are found. A hedge witch is an herbalist, mixing up potions and brews in their kitchen. They work with the forces of nature and the cycles of the moon.

37. Hellenic Witch

Hellenic or Hellenistic paganism is based upon the pantheon of Greek gods and goddesses. Many witches feel a kinship with the mythology of the ancient Greeks because their stories have such relevance to life today. It’s common for a witch to call on Pan to help her with a spell, or to place a statue of Aphrodite on their altar. Should you be unsure of your new path, take a look at the ancient Greeks; they have a lot to offer.

38. Hereditary Witch

Much less common than some folk would have you believe hereditary witchcraft is handed down from parent (or grandparent) to child through the generations. The problem is that mass migration, two world wars, and the advance of science disrupted the cycle. Many families dissociated themselves from their pagan pasts in pursuit of the American dream. Hereditary witchcraft is more prevalent in Europe and Africa.

39. The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn

This was an organization devoted to the study of the occult. In fact the Golden Dawn was the first of three orders in a hierarchy through which students progressed. The second was usually abbreviated to the Rosy Cross and the third was called the Secret Chiefs. Many of the rituals and practices of the Golden Dawn were incorporated into Wicca. It also shares certain commonalities with Freemasonry, as all three founding members were Freemasons. One very important distinction was that women were welcomed as members from the start.

The Golden Dawn was plagued by internal politics and disputes, and although two off-shoot temples survived until the 1970s, it had more or less disbanded by the mid 20th century. However several forms of the order have been revived and have an online presence.

40. Kitchen Witch

Kitchen witchery shares many practices with the hearth witch, the hedge witch, and the green witch. As you can guess, a kitchen witch bases their magickal work and practice around their home. Additionally, they also incorporate their witch-love and magic into their cooking. Originally a ‘kitchen witch’ was a kind of doll that hung in the kitchen to help the cook by preventing culinary disaster. These days the kitchen witch makes use of all modern tools available to her.

41. Law of Attraction Witch

This is a new breed of witch who bases their beliefs on the now ubiquitous Law of Attraction. In fact, all witchcraft was and is based on this concept. From the sympathetic magic worked by the Cornish peller to the Wiccan threefold law, it all comes down to LoA.

42. Left-Hand Path

There is a lot of confusion about the LHP. Many think that taking a left-hand path, magically speaking, is about black magick or devil worship. This is not true. The left-hand path is much more about the rejection of convention and the breaking of taboos. LHP followers may well work with entities that many would categorize as demonic, but they might also work with angels.

43. Lounge Witch

A witch who restricts their witchcraft to the home, and often used as a disparaging term, yet no one who works in this way should care what others think. Some people can only practice witchcraft by themselves and at home for various reasons, including the fear they may offend loved ones, or because they are housebound. To all the lounge witches out there, you are no less a witch for working this way.

44. Luciferian

Lucifer is often mistakenly identified as the Devil due to the belief that, as an angel, he fell from God’s grace. Yet among many, he is revered as the ‘bringer of light,’ the path to enlightenment, independence, and progression. Luciferians are avid supporters of the arts, science, and the natural world.

The witch and astrologer, Margaret Montalban, founded her own branch of Luciferianism in England: the Order of the Morning Star. With her husband, she went on to develop a magickal system which they delivered via a correspondence course.

45. Lunar Witch

A Lunar witch bases her workings around the lunar cycles. Not only that, she takes the phases of the moon into account when making any major decisions and organizing her life. She may well create her magickal ingredients and potions according to the moon, as well as when planting seeds and seedlings. She is always aware of where the moon is in its monthly and 18.6-year cycles.

46. Musical Witch

Like the art witch, the musical witch expresses her pagan feelings and ideas through her music. A notable example, although she probably wouldn’t describe herself that way, is Kate Bush. Other ‘out of the broom closet’ musical witches include Lisa Thiel and Loreena McKennitt.

47. Norse Witchcraft

Witchcraft of the Norse tradition has a complex history based on a vast ocean of mythology. Known as seiðr or seidh, Norse witchcraft is a type of ancient sorcery. It was primarily associated with two main Nordic deities: Odin and Freya.

48. Neo-Pagan

Neo-paganism is an umbrella term that refers to the resurgence in all kinds of witchcraft, including Wicca, Gardnerianism, and all the ‘new’ earth-based customs.

49. Satanic

Satanic witchcraft came into being as a reaction to historical accusations of witches’ cohorting with the Devil. Its roots are in America, but with the advent of the internet, the movement has spread worldwide. Satanic witchcraft is a cult of defiance against the constructs of a dictatorial society. If you are for something, your average satanic witch will be against it. They hold that no person can have authority over another without their consent.

50. Scandinavian Witch

Witchcraft is big in Scandinavia. Anne Mia Steno, a research assistant at the Danish Folklore Archives, says that almost everyone in Denmark knows a witch, even if they don’t know it. Scandinavian witches are very diverse and they keep their practice secret. She also estimates that one in every four witches is a man. Scandinavian witchcraft takes elements from many other traditions, including, of course, the Norse tradition.

51. Sea Witch

Sea witches are usually to be found living near the coast, surprise, surprise. They make use of their surroundings, often working their magick late at night in a secluded cove. They are always in tune with the tides and moon cycles. They closely aligned with water witches; those who practice near rivers, streams, and lakes.

Originally, sea witches were portrayed as magickal beings who appeared on ships or as humans with the ability to control the sea and weather conditions. Sailors went to great pains to avoid offending them.

A sea witch may practice the art of austromancy; a method of divination based on the tides.

52. Secular Witch

Secular witchcraft is an interesting animal. It refers to a witch who does not call upon, work with, or worship deities in her witchcraft practice. It doesn’t mean that the witch doesn’t believe in a higher spiritual intelligence, only that those beliefs are not incorporated into her magickal work.

Yet a secular witch does make use of energy, and energy is the force that binds the universe together. To me, that’s Source, to some, God. Confused? Me too

53. Shaman

Shaman is a term for a magician who works magick by deliberately entering an altered state of consciousness. Shamans and shamanism are found all over the world in the ethnic religions of many peoples. The word is a western construct. Each tribe or society will have a different name for their personal shaman.

Shamanism assumes that the practitioner is a conduit of energy from the spirits and that s/he has a direct line to those deities who can help or hinder human beings. It’s a huge subject and well worth exploring.

54. Shinto

Shinto is a Japanese religion that combines legends, folklore, diverse beliefs, and ritual, with the worship of gods and ‘essences.’ Many aspects of it date back to the 6th century. It’s charming, fascinating, and has much in common with animism. Its central tenet is ‘Kami,’ defined as the ‘spiritual essence’ which permeates all things.

55. Sigil or Word Witch.

A word witch weaves his or her magick into words. We know that merely writing things down can cause changes in ourselves and in the universe. We can bring our desired outcome merely by writing it down, putting some energy into it and then assuming, without doubt, that it will happen. What we don’t have control over (and neither would we want it so) is how it happens. Thus we are very, very careful how we craft our magickal words.

56. Solitary Witch

A solitary witch is one who works alone. They may keep their witchiness a secret. They believe they can raise more power and do more good relying on their own ability to channel energy. A solitary may also be any of the witch types described on this page. So a Kitchen witch may be solitary. A Wiccan might be a solitary.

Having said that, it doesn’t mean the solitary might not meet up with others for a good old knees-up in the local pub, otherwise known as a moot. After which, they may morph into a green witch and, on the way home, find themselves communing with a bush, thus transforming into a hedge witch. Magickal. Let's hope they have a good friend who can provide them with a hangover remedy in the morning.

One of the first books I bought on witchcraft was the late Scott Cunningham’s Wicca: A Guide for the Solitary Practitioner. It is still sold in huge numbers and really, every witch should have a copy on her bookshelf (or on her Kindle device). This book is a foundational practice for many a Wiccan, the world over.

Seek wisdom in books, rare manuscripts, and cryptic poems if you will, but seek it out also in simple stones, and fragile herbs, and in the cries of wild birds. Listen to the whisperings of the wind and the roar of water if you would discover magic, for it is here that the old secrets are preserved.

— Scott Cunningham June 27, 1956 – March 28, 1993


57. Stregheria

Stregheria, or Strega, is an Italian form of witchcraft. It has a lot in common with Wicca. In recent years, Strega has been given prominence by the writer, Raven Grimassi. However, not all practitioners agree on its format, and there seems to be a lot of rivalry between various factions. I’m always put on my guard when I see warnings on websites to beware of other sites offering ‘misinformation.’ To me, witchcraft is ever changing and evolving. Acceptance of all seems paramount to me.

Stregheria was first brought to the attention of modern pagans in the 1970's by Italian-American Leo Martello. Since then Grimassi’s writings and practice have driven the movement forward.

58. Tech Witch

A tech witch is one who makes the most of all the technology available today. They think nothing of working a spell on their phone, tablet, or laptop. They also work with others using such tools as Skype and Whatsapp. They may keep their Grimoire or Book of Shadows in digital form. And there’s no denying that the advent of the internet has enabled growing interest in modern pagan movements.

Tech witches believe that using all the tools available, such as a microwave in place of a cauldron, is perfectly fine, as I’m pretty sure that ye olde village witch would have done the same if she had access to such resources.

59. Thelema

Thelema is Aleister Crowley’s version of witchcraft. It’s religious, philosophical and based on its singular tenet: "Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law. Love is the law, love under will.” This is a damn good one as far as I’m concerned.

Crowley’s system is based on ceremonial ritual, primarily derived from an interpretation of Egyptian traditions. Crowley is much derided, but modern Wicca owes a lot to his work, and he was a fascinating character.


The neo-pagan religion, Wicca, developed from a tradition created by the retired English civil servant, Gerald Gardner in the 1950s. Many people believe that Wicca is ancient, but it is far from it. It is based on all manner of traditions and has grown a slightly ‘sweetness and light’ veneer over the last few years.

In some ways, Wicca is lovely because you can construct your own version and make it be exactly as you wish. However, you have to be careful of any coven or organization which tells you it ‘must’ be done in a certain way. Wiccans can be as dogmatic as any religious sect.



Read over the 60 trads and pick 3 that feels right to you. Research and write a little about them.

Find 2 trads that are not on the list and tell me a little about them and why you picked them.

Have fun!

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